That is why late Medieval Castles (including Concentric Castles) had circular towers (or the so-called drum towers) with no corners which could be undermined. The idea of using layers of thick walls to defend a site is a concept that existed long before the medieval period: The ancient city of Lachish, once besieged by the Assyrians, was found to have been surrounded by multiple concentric walls; ancient Babylon too featured similar fortifications; the Theodosian Land Walls at Constantinople, constructed in the 4th and 5th centuries, boasted two sets of walls around most of the city, with the inner wall being higher than the outer to allow defenders to rain down missiles onto attacking soldiers. The only hope was to lay siege to the castle in the hope that the inhabitants would eventually starve and surrender. Clark) "both the earliest and the most complete example in Britain of a concentric castle of the type known as ` Edwardian,' the circle of walls and towers of the outer, inner and middle wards exhibiting the most complete illustration of the most scientific military architecture." The domestic buildings within the circular curtain walls are largely intact, as is the high wall. Gatehouses were strongly defended and they were equipped with deadly traps to make a direct assault difficult: A portcullis (which comes from the French word porte coulissante, meaning sliding door) was a wooden or (more often) metal grill which was lowered from the ceiling in front of the attackers to block the passage. Most people chose this as the best definition of concentric: The definition of concent... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. The concentric castle is effectively two castles in one. Concentric castles developed during the 12th and 13th Centuries and were virtually impossible to conquer. Jun 21, 2013 - Explore Karen Smith's board "Concentric Castles" on Pinterest. The small number of towers (also used as lookouts) made it difficult for defenders to determine where an enemy attack might occur, especially if the attackers were coming from various directions. Motte and Bailey Castles Arundel Castle, England. A long time ago during the Middle Ages, people lived in dangerous times. This is a common tourist attraction these days, and it is interesting to know that buildings from so long ago have this type of longevity. The inner walls were the highest and turrets were incorporated within the walls. Some Concentric castle had a moat for additional protection. Concentric castles represented a high point for medieval military architecture, and they were arguably the most formidable castles to be built during the period. Concentric Castles Examples Of Concentric (edwardian. Pioneered in Italy, these forts were permanent artillery fortifications exclusively designed to withstand cannon fire. There are in my view at least 10 Spanish (/Portugese) concentric castles which are in better condition and/or more significant most of the examples given here. Resource and facility sharing is used to reduce costs and achieve economies of scale. Towards the end of the 12th century, the counterweight trebuchet emerged. Your email address will not be published. The outer wall is shorter than the inner wall, and sometimes slants inward. A concentric castle is a much larger construction than Motte and bailey or Stone keep castles. Circular towers had been designed at each of the corners and sometimes these towers would have protruded outwards from the walls and featured arrow slits on each level to allow archers to target anyone nearing the curtain wall. A concentric castle (or multiple castle) is a castle within a castle. 0. concentric castles can be found in Wales and England.but there isn't that many because there was not much need to replace the stone castles. Byzantine castle builders continued to build this style of fortification into the medieval period too, with the 11th-century castle at Korykos (in modern-day Turkey) standing as an excellent example of an early concentric castle. The concentric castle… Motte-and-Bailey Castles, the original Castle design, Evolution in Castle design: Stone Castles, Top 10 most impressive castles in the Netherlands, stone castles built until the late 12th-century. Castles can have more than one bailey. It was evident that there was a need for further innovation in castle defense. Concentric castles often also included postern gates, an inconspicuously placed secondary door which let defenders sally out and potentially flank besiegers in the event of an assault. In fact, concentric castles were so incredibly effective as defensive structures that assaults against them were rarely attempted. Complete castles: Beaumaris Castle Raby Castle Harlech Castle Aberystwyth Castle Caerphilly Castle Tower of London Leeds Castle - see photo by gailf548 Queenborough Castle. Concentric castles were made up of a series of circular walls. Having a common center. You can find many examples of stone keep style castles still standing today. They had evolved from the primitive motte-and-bailey castles to the mighty concentric castles. This was certainly one of the primary reasons behind Edward’s construction of his concentric castles in Wales, as he was able to stamp his authority on the landscape of this newly acquired territory. All of these ‘active defence’ features combined to make concentric castles into elaborately planned and extremely powerful fortifications. A concentric castle was an extremely expensive stone castle, effectively designed to be a ‘castle in a castle’. The weaknesses and disadvantages of concentric castles were as follows: Concentric Castles were extremely expensive to build; The loss of a Concentric castle would have been disastrous for the owner After stone keep castles, concentric castles … For example, attackers quickly discovered that they could undermine the fortifications by burrowing under the foundations; moreover, powerful siege-engines were developed (such as the catapult or the trebuchet) which were able to demolish parts of the stone walls. A castle of this magnitude left no doubt as to the political superiority of its owner. The Concentric castle was developed in the 12th and 13th Centuries and offered the best protection against attack. Many such castles had a large tower in the middle (called a donjon) as a final bastion of defence. In England, the construction of a chain of artillery fortifications by Henry VIII sent a clear message to the aristocracy that it was now the state that had responsibility for national defense. For example, most concentric castles feature two sets of walls, one of which has a wider perimeter than the other. The main gatehouse is shown on the left side of the castle. Beaumaris Castle in Wales is an excellent example of this: the outer bailey, the gap between the inner and outer curtain walls, can clearly be seen, while the large inner bailey forms the heart of the castle. A key point in the design was to build towers facing in all directions. See more ideas about Castle, Famous castles, Beautiful castles. It is important to note that the walls of concentric castles were not usually circular in shape – often they were rectangular (like Beaumaris), or else polygonal to make use of terrain features (like Krak des Chevaliers). WORK WITH US Diagram of a stone castle built until the late 12th-century. Learn more. Generally, the outermost walls are lowest and the height of the walls increases towards the centre. Posted on Aug 1, 2020. Beaumaris castle Considered to be the best example of a concentric castle. 0. Castle designers realized it was preferable to build in more durable stone. 0. From this point on, most newly constructed castles would have a regular shape: square or polygonal. The easiest example of a concentric movement is the bicep curl. Some cities too began to adopt the double-wall concentric design, such as the southern French city of Carcassonne. As ever, historians have debated the cause at length, but one popular view has to do with siege technology. In the German areas of the Holy Roman Empire, many castles developed a double-wall design, with a narrow outer bailey – these were known as Zwinger but were rarely as large as concentric castles. The Byzantines also famously constructed the Walls of Constantinople 0. However, the cost was not the only problem with these fortifications. Byzantine castle builders continued to build this style of fortification into the medieval period too, with the 11th-century castle at Korykos (in modern-day Turkey) standing as an excellent example of an early concentric castle. Essentially a concentric castle is a series of defensive structures. All these deadly traps were used to create panic among attackers inside the gatehouse. What castle was next after the concentric castle? The Medieval castle: the ultimate in defence. They had battlements, moats, a drawbridge, a strongly defended entrance and arrow slits. 0. The Concentric castle was developed in the 12th and 13th Centuries and offered the best protection against attack. The outer walls were lower than the inner walls (to allow archers on the inner walls to fire at attackers over the outer walls). Crucially, the multiple curtain walls on a concentric castle varied in height – the inner wall was taller than the outer wall, in order to afford defenders a better line of sight. One of the most famous is the Tower of London. Caernarfon is considered to be one of the best examples of a concentric castle as the walls are actually two walls with a hollow middle filled with rubble. Castles continued to be built, but now the grandeur and aesthetics of the design became the most important aspect. All its windows face inwards, are large and unusually ornate in decoration. Their vast size also meant that they took an extremely long time to build, such a long time that occasionally they were no longer politically or militarily useful by the time they were completed – a good example is Caernarfon Castle, which took 47 years to raise. Recognize famous examples of concentric castles in Europe Tell about the history of this type of castle; Practice Exams. Castle designer's response was to build thicker walls or to pile an earthen bank behind a castle's curtain wall to absorb some of the shocks of impact. Concentric diversification, a strategy used to increase company appeal to consumers, can also involve opening new markets by creating product variation. A bailey or ward in a fortification is a courtyard enclosed by a curtain wall.In particular, an early type of European castle was known as a motte-and-bailey. The walls of a concentric castle also featured many towers – the rounded towers of Krak des Chevaliers in modern Syria are impressive in their size and strength. The diagram shown above shows an example of a concentric castle. There are many castles in Britain using this design like Harlech, Conway, Caernarvon, and Beaumaris. A concentric castle (or multiple castle) is a castle within a castle, with two or more concentric rings of curtain walls and a keep in the centre. A strong gatehouse could be equipped with several portcullises to block the passage and possibly trap intruders between them. Their slow build time meant that they were not as effective as military fortifications for up to decades after their conception. This siege engine was based around a long beam attached to an axle, which was suspended above the ground using a wooden framework. The castles of North Wales, built by Edward I, are outstanding examples of concentric castles – and mighty to this day. These castles were also related to King Edward I. Krak des Chevaliers also featured a clever element of concentric castle design intended to confuse and slow an attacking force: the ‘bent entrance’. They were often caught in the area between the two curtain walls, nicknamed 'the death area' (in fact, this is the outer bailey). Siege-engines could not be brought close to the castle, as many also had a water-filled moat surrounding the outer wall. Concentric castles had many advantages over earlier designs. The Medieval castle: the ultimate in defence. NEVER MISS A POST Primarily these castles emerged in the crusader states in the 12th century and spread to Europe in the 13th century. Circular walls eliminated corners, which were more susceptible to mining and breaching by besiegers, and provided a fall back position - the next wall - if the outer one fell. Sometimes the keep was sacrificed to save money, and in these situations, the space inside the towers would have made up for the loss of the keep and provide additional space for habitation. These changes turned castles into uncomfortable and undesirable places to live and eventually, the baton was passed to newly designed star-forts which began to take over from the defensive role of castles. Concentric castles also provided their builders with an enormous prestige boost, allowing great kings and military orders to not only physically claim territory but also to create an image of their splendour and power among their feudal vassals and subjects. Even if the outer wall was captured by an attacking force, and the outer bailey occupied, the height of the inner wall would allow defenders to rain down missiles onto enemy soldiers, effectively meaning that the attackers could not use the outer wall to their advantage. ... An example of concentric are the circles of the iris and pupil within an eye. UNITED STATES ; FRESHEST ; INTERNATIONAL ; PROPERTY ; HOMES ; LIVING ; SERVICES ; SOCIAL MEDIA; 5-4-3-2-1 = The Website Photographer. Until the end of the 12th-century, stone-built and earth and timber castles were widely used, but by the late 1100's, Motte-and -Bailey castles made of earth and timber began to fall out of fashion. As the name suggests, concentric castles were based on a ring-within-a-ring structure. The following is a list of concentric castles in England and Wales . Furthermore, the layout of the castle was designed to lure attackers who had breached the outer wall into the outer bailey, where they had no cover and were extremely vulnerable to missiles fired from the inner wall. The height of the walls would increase towards the middle, enabling inner defenders - such as archers - to shoot over the defenders of the outer walls. Concentric castles appeared in Europe in the 13th century, with the castles built in Wales by Edward I providing some outstanding examples, in particular Beaumaris Castle, a "perfect concentric castle", [3] albeit unfinished. Spanish concentric castles. A defensive strategy. Concentric castles generally developed in the 12 th and 13 th centuries, although there are a handful of earlier examples. Concentric castles were a famous behemoth castle design along with stone-keep designs. Building a concentric castle was phenomenally expensive and only the King and the powerful military orders, such as the Hospitallers and the Knights Templars could afford to build or maintain such a structure. These castles were designed by architect Master James of St. George for King Edward I in Wales specifically to withstand sieges and destroy the attackers. Some Concentric castle had a moat for additional protection. Furthermore, their very great cost meant that they represented a huge burden on royal treasuries, which could of course lead to political instability and reduce prestige. Concentric Castles. Concentric castles became even more popular after the invention of gunpowder since they could withstand a siege whilst a regular castle could not. A medieval lord, ensconced in his chambers in the keep, could sit by the fire confident that any attackers would need months to penetrate the layers of… Beaumaris castle Considered to be the best example of a concentric castle. A massive circular shell keep built atop an early Norman motte and bailey castle, one of the most complete remaining examples in the West Country. New impressive country houses were built in a "castle style", with towers and crenellations, but they were solely for display and had no practical military purpose. Posted on Aug 1, 2020. At a glance: advantages of concentric castles. A stone… The most secure area in the centre of the castle would have been wrapped by two mighty outer stone walls. The outer wall is 110 metres square, surrounded by a moat 12 metres deep. Some concentric castle walls also featured machicolations – these were small floor openings protruding from the battlements through which rocks, hot water or boiling oil could be dropped onto attacking soldiers gathering at the base of the wall. Stone castles were very expensive to build but they demonstrated the wealth and power of the lord that built it. However, concentric castles also possessed distinct disadvantages. Beaumaris Castle was the perfect example of an unfinished concentric castle. Your email address will not be published. These acted to shelter defenders from missiles whilst also featuring arrow slits to allow them to shoot back, and larger towers could be used to house trebuchets which could rain down fire onto attackers. POLICIES • TERMS AND PRIVACY, CONTACT US Hello, I am Chrysoula, welcome to my blog where I share my journey of discovering historical castles around Europe. Concentric castles have two walls, one built inside the other. However, stone castles built until the late 12th-century had few defensive features: a high central keep, sometimes a water-fill moat that surrounded the castle and some square towers along the curtain wall and flanking the gatehouse that was often poorly defended. Records show that Saladin was certainly using these formidable siege engines by 1187, although it is highly likely that they were in use earlier in the 12th century. By this, we mean that the castle was made up of two or more sets of curtain walls, punctuated by round towers, arranged concentrically – that is, they are all based around the same central point. A concentric castle has a outer wall with a gatehouse as in an ordinary castle, but it also has one or more inner walls with one or more gatehouses! The concentric castles which make up Edward’s ‘iron ring’ include: The mighty shape of formidable Harlech Castle; The fortified town surrounding gigantic Caernarfon Castle; Beaumaris Castle – the most perfect concentric castle of them all; However, attackers soon found out that by burrowing under one of the corners of the square foundations, they could undermine the entire tower. 0. The double-wall design of a concentric castle lends it great strength, as attackers would have to breach two very strong lines of defence in order to reach the centre of the castle. One of the earliest concentric castles was the Crusaders’ Castle at Belvoir in Israel, dating from 1168. This also removed another form of attack, as the castle could not be besieged. Pevensey castle in East Sussex is an example of a Norman Castle built inside an existing Roman Fort. Concentric castles had other defensive features too, including circular towers which were difficult to undermine. Even though concentric castles were easy to defend and sturdy, they weren’t cheap to construct. FIND TEXT or NAME or SITE URL SEARCH. As a result, concentric castles emerged as the ultimate incarnation of the medieval castle, both in terms of size, defensive capability, and symbolic prestige. All of the concentric castles built by Edward I were built by the sea, making it easy for them to resupply via ship. This greatly increased the defensive capability of the fortification, as attackers would have to breach not one, but two sets of formidable stone walls in order to capture the castle. Take Exam To keep a kingdom safe, castles were built to protect the king and lords as well as the people who lived on the surrounding lands. The keep was not a necessary element; in fact, most concentric castles were built without a central keep. A concentric castle was an extremely expensive stone castle, effectively designed to be a ‘castle in a castle’. The castle was originally just a dirt/wooden fort but was transformed by Lithuanian Princes into a stone castle. The space between the outer and inner walls prevents attackers from getting inside the castle. Concentric castles appeared in Europe in the 13th century, with the castles built in Wales by Edward I providing some outstanding examples, in particular Beaumaris Castle, a "perfect concentric castle", albeit unfinished. © 2018 all about castles. Final Exam Social Studies for Kids Status: Not Started. The main feature of concentric castles was a series of circular walls, each inside another. Square or rectangular stone towers were especially vulnerable, as their shape made them unable to absorb the heavy impact of a large stone missile thrown from a trebuchet. For this eventuality, concentric castles generally included wells to supply the garrison with water. Castles as it offered a better form of defence the concentric castle… the castle. 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